I Stand with Big Cats

Today, everyday all cats big and small. If you haven’t posted your picture yet please take to Instagram, Facebook, twitter or Snap chat to show your support of our wonderful and wild feline friends. I specifically picked a photo taken a few years ago with P-22 mountain lion in L.A. (not the real one his famous cardboard cut out). While I love (aka am obsessed with all wildcats) it seems that we here in North America forget that mountain lions like all wildcats elsewhere are victims of habitat loss, human population growth, human/wildlife conflict and conflict with livestock. Additionally, they fall prey to outdated myths resulting in heavy persecution from hunting and trapping (even here in Canada). We now know so much more about these mysterious and once very misunderstood cats, but we have a long way to go. Even with ground breaking research like that of Panthera’s Puma Program they continue to be treated/viewed like they were centuries ago. We know better we should be doing better, our ‘big cat’ deserves our respect and protection.

Mountain lions do not receive the protection or even consideration like African lions or most of the other big cats, they are unfortunately considered of “least concern” despite the fact that there numbers overall are declining. What are we waiting for? We cannot protect or save what is not there. While we continue to fight for all wildcats elsewhere we cannot ignore what goes on in our own backyard, we must continue to push for more humane ways to co-exist with them.

‘Lead by example. What better way to show other countries how to live alongside predators?’

Happy #WorldWildlifeDay @pantheracats Today & everyday #IStandWithBigCats . . I have specifically picked this photo taken a few years ago with the most famous mountain lion in the world #p22mountainlion because he represents the struggles that North America's lion is facing. We often forget that just like big cats elsewhere, these 'big cats' are victims of habitat loss, human population growth, human/wildlife conflict & conflict with livestock. Additionally, they fall prey to outdated myths resulting in heavy persecution from hunting & trapping (even here in Canada). We now know so much more about these mysterious & once very misunderstood cats, but we have a long way to go. They deserve our respect & protection . . While we continue to fight for all wildcats elsewhere we cannot ignore what goes on in our own backyard. Vital to healthy ecosystems we must continue to push for more humane ways to co-exist with them . . What better way to show other countries how to live alongside predators than leading by example? . . #PredatorsUnderThreat #WWD2018 #Mountainlions #puma #catamount #cougars #betheirvoice #savelions #apexpredator #leadbyexample #wildlifeconservation #endpoaching #actforcats #BigCats #lovecats #caturday #wildlife #conservation #panthera

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From one of my favorite accounts/photographers, Robert Martinez/Parliament Of Owls comes amazing footage of a mountain lion mom known as Limpy and her three kittens in California – a place that is trying its best to learn how to coexist with North America’s largest cat.

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Saving Arizona’s Wildcats

Trophy hunting has plagued wildlife for generations and, it is a hot topic that elicits intense reactions from people regardless of what side you are on. While people tend to associate trophy hunting with African wildlife like lions, many are shocked to find out that right here in North America our own wildcats like the mountain lion continue to experience heavy and often extreme persecution. Despite the fact that we now have the knowledge, science, and the common sense to know that the practice of hunting undermines true conservation and wildlife protection, in many places these animals continue to be viewed and treated in the same manner as they were centuries ago.

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Early photo shows a cougar hunter when a bounty was paid for killing the cats in the U.S. Photo is undated but possibly from the early 1900’s.

There are those that cling to the idea that it is their right or part of their culture to kill for sport and, any move made to end the practice or even discuss ending it, is seen as a threat. The other side looks at it as evolving and adapting to the times we live in, when it makes sense to end a particular tradition or practice that no longer serves us or wildlife. For example, in Kenya it was a long-held tradition and part of the culture for a young Maasai Warrior to spear a lion as proof of his manhood. Today the Maasai have acknowledged that Africa’s lions are on the verge of disappearing, there are only an estimated 15,000-20,000 left, and have made the move to partake in the Maasai Olympics instead of killing lions.

Even though the true status of mountain lion populations is unknown, some will argue that they are not endangered or in danger of extinction, but must we wait until they are in the same predicament as the African lion before we do something? Do we not have a moral obligation to end a cruel practice that is clearly not beneficial to the species?

The time has come to make the move towards ending hunting and trapping of mountain lions and all wildcats. Here in North America we have seen some progress made in places like Colorado where a federal wildlife killing program, that called for the death of bears and mountain lions, has been halted and more recently in California where the U.S. Appeals Court upheld the States ban on killing mountain lions for trophies. Now, in Arizona, a new ballot initiative has been introduced in hopes of restricting trophy hunting and trapping of Arizona’s wildcats including bobcats, mountain lions, jaguars, lynx and ocelots.

Arizonans for Wildlife is spearheaded by The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and is backed by numerous organizations, groups and individuals who support progress and conservation that does not involve the killing of their wildlife. Advocates of the proposed initiative will have to gather more than 150,642 valid signatures on petitions to get the issue on the ballot by July 5, 2018 to quality for the November 2018 election.

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While the Arizona ballot has a tremendous amount of support behind it, it also faces opposition by those who will do everything in their power to keep the status quo. To find out more about the ballot, and address some of the misinformation being spread, I interviewed Kellye Pinkleton, the Arizona State Director for the HSUS and project lead on the Arizona ballot initiative.

What are the origins of the Arizona ballot and how did the coalition, Arizonans for Wildlife, come together?

Due to the lax hunting regulations around mountain lions and bobcats in Arizona, we began looking at this issue long before filing the committee. We do not move forward with a statewide initiative without listening to the concerns of Arizonans and groups that protect wildlife. We ensure that it is given thoughtful consideration, we gauge in-state support as well as citizen attitude’s and current legislative culture. In addition, significant time is also spent reviewing the best available science and talking with experts on the issue well in advance. More on the state of the mountain lion can be read in a thorough commissioned study that was published by the HSUS in 2017.

Polling was conducted and we met with groups that were also concerned about this issue. We strongly supported a bill introduced in the state legislature this past 2017 session that would prohibit the trophy hunting of wildcats, but it did not even receive a committee hearing. The legislature was not willing to open a process for hearings or public comment to consider the measure.

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“What we overwhelmingly found was that the current AZ model of hounding and trapping of our wildcats was not supported.” Image – Arizona Game & Fish Department

We found that in recent years wildlife groups, conservation nonprofits and outside (in-state) interest groups that wanted to protect our state’s wildlife from cruelty have been consistently ignored by the Arizona Game and Fish Department, the state agency. There seems to be a reluctance for the department to actively work with groups beyond hunting and sportsmen organizations. Additionally, the best available science was found not to support the current management plans being implemented in AZ.

Discussions and polling demonstrated that Arizonans do NOT approve of the cruel hounding and trapping of our wildcats currently permitted in the state. Over two-thirds support prohibition on hunting wildcats and interestingly, 65% thought it was illegal. In general, we know that nationally, the public does not support senseless trophy hunting or killing primarily for the purpose of displaying a body or body parts or simply for bragging rights. Finally in late Sept, 2017, the Arizonans for Wildlife committee filed with the AZ Secretary of State’s office.

What is the main reason mountain lions and other wildcats are targeted in Arizona?

Hunters that hunt our wildcats are not hunting them merely for subsistence. These cats are hunted for several reasons, primarily as trophies whether for their bodies/heads or with bobcats, for their fur. Livestock predation is rare, as well as any attacks on humans.

Why it is so important to address the inherent cruelty of trophy hunting, trapping and hounding of wildcats in Arizona?

It is important for citizens of the state know how their wildlife is being “managed” and often, we find, citizens just do not realize the methods and the cruelty involved.  65% of Arizonans thought the practice of hunting wildcats was illegal and we find people are shocked when they learn how mountain lions and bobcats are hunted.  Wildlife is not just the property of a state agency, it is a resource for all citizens and we all have an obligation to protect wildlife and not needlessly or cruelly kill them. Hunters represent a very small portion of the population in AZ and nationally, yet wildlife management is geared towards the hunting community.

Currently, Arizona places NO limits on the number of bobcats that can be killed. In fact, an average of over 4,000 bobcats have been killed each year over the past five years. Although Arizona voters resoundingly said “no” to the use of steel-jawed leghold traps, body-crushing traps, and snares on public land with Proposition 201 in 1994, thousands of bobcats are still trapped every year using these barbaric devices on private land, and with cage traps on public land. Trapping mountain lions is prohibited in Arizona, but records show that mountain lions are routinely trapped inadvertently in other states where trapping them is illegal because these devices do not discriminate between species. While in the trap, animals sustain serious injuries, including broken limbs and broken teeth, dislocated shoulders, lacerations, fractures, amputation of paws or whole legs, or even chew off their limbs trying to escape, or die from exposure. Because trappers are only required to check the traps once a day, animals could be stuck in excruciating pain for hours.

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Bobcat in trap. A quick internet search will bring up numerous disturbing images of bobcats and other animals suffering in traps – Image Wyoming Untrapped

Mountain lion mothers spend up to 24 months raising and provisioning for their kittens. If a mother is killed by a trophy hunter, her kittens will likely die from predation, dehydration, starvation or exposure. As biologists have found, kittens are unlikely capable of dispatching prey until they are 12 months of age. This means that trophy hunters routinely kill not only the mother, but also her orphaned young kittens, who cannot survive on their own until they are one year old.

I do want to address the cruelty and set up the context. Specifically, that mountain lions and bobcats are legally killed using extremely cruel and inhumane methods.”

The Arizona Game and Fish Department also permits hounding of our wild cats. An unlimited number of radio-collared, trailing hounds are permitted to chase mountain lions or bobcats. Both the hunted animal and the dogs can be exhausted by the extreme heat in Arizona during the high-stress chase. In addition to being cruel, this method of hunting puts the dogs at risk of being mauled, and if dogs get lost during a hunt, they are often abandoned and left to be killed by other animals or dumped into shelters.

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Mountain lion hunting with hounds, a cruel and sadistic practice. Click here to see video and images of hounding by an Arizona outfitter. One look and you will understand why this blood sport must be banned.

The intention of this ballot is not only to protect mountain lions and bobcats, but also other wildlife like the ocelot, jaguar, and the Canada lynx

Ocelots and jaguars are listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and lynx are listed as threatened. While these cats have federal protections, they still face serious threats from trophy hunting and trapping. Some hunting dogs will target species other than mountain lions or bobcats. Arizona’s rare cats may also be accidentally chased or killed by hounds during state-sanctioned mountain lion and bobcat-hunting seasons along with other vulnerable wildlife, like ungulates such as elk or mule deer, who are killed or startled and flushed by hounds. As hounds do not understand boundaries, many stray on to lands where they do not belong including private property or on National Park Service lands.

Traps are notoriously indiscriminate and often catch other non-target animals, including endangered species or even livestock or wild ungulates. Because of the inherently indiscriminate and cruel nature of hounds and traps, jaguars, ocelots and lynx remain at imminent risk of being accidentally caught and/or killed by hounds or in steel-jawed leghold traps set for bobcats on private lands.

Additionally, we wanted to ensure protection of these animals and not simply leave their potential delisting up to the whim or politics of any federal administration. By including them it will help uphold the ban on killing them.

Why is it important for all Arizonans, not just those who hunt or trap, to have their say in wildcat conservation?

Wildlife in Arizona is for ALL citizens.  Every Arizonan has an interest in protecting our rich resources, including the animals that inhabit our lands. Wildlife watching far outweighs hunting in participation and revenue generated so there is a financial incentive to citizens to protect wild animals.  We find in poll after poll in the state, whether on trophy hunting or general animal issues, that Arizonans care deeply about our animals.  Non hunters are the majority of citizens in this state.

The campaign is still in the early stages, what has the response been like to date from the community?

Yes, we just launched at the end of September and held public kick-off events in October.  We have been overwhelmed with the response, especially from many organizations in the state and nationally.  We currently have over 75 endorsers and daily we are hearing from groups that believe in this campaign and want to help. We are hearing from folks across Arizona that want to not only support this measure, but to actively volunteer to gather signatures to get this on the ballot in Nov. 2018. As we talk to citizens, we find they are outraged that hounding is actually legal. Like us, they view this type of hunting as un-sportsman and unethical. People are shocked that steel-jawed leg hold traps are permitted on private land. They recognize that this is a cruel method of hunting and support the prohibition of this type of hunting.

The campaign is endorsed by some very well respected organizations like the Animal Legal Defense Fund, Born Free USA, The Cougar Fund, Jane Goodall Institute and Panthera – just to name a few

We are grateful to the support we have received from so many well respected organizations.  We recognized early on that to launch a successful campaign, we needed a broad coalition of supportive groups and leaders.  To have these groups lend their name and provide resources, such as volunteers, or whatever they can was critical to this effort.  We have a broad spectrum of groups nationally and in Arizona that represent wildlife interests, environmental, companion animals, wildcats specifically and boast memberships of all types of citizens and supporters.  We are so thankful to the groups that have already supported this and know that many more will continue to join this effort.

Do you feel that local politicians are generally receptive to the campaign and what it is trying to accomplish?

We are honored to have the support of some of our local elected officials. We know that some will not support this because they fear the retribution of hunting groups and the NRA during election time. We also know, that as the campaign moves forward, to expect others to join whether during the signature gathering phase or once we qualify for the ballot.  We have some State Representatives, State Senators and a few local officials/candidates that very early on endorsed us and said, “Yes, I believe in this.”  Politicians can face extreme pressure from pro-trophy-hunting lobby groups and the NRA (which opposes this effort) and other well-financed special interest organizations. To have elected officials and candidates this early in the campaign step up to support us speaks to their willingness to stand firm on the right side of history and not bow down to a small, but vocal community.

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“We celebrate more citizens becoming engaged in animal protection issues and believe that it is our obligation to raise awareness, educate and whenever possible be a conduit to push for changes in policy that reflect these values when they are also matched by sound science.” A mountain lion in Arizona – Image Arizonans for Wildlife

Many of those who oppose the campaign are saying it is simply based on emotions, but organizations backing the initiative are clearly knowledgeable about the species and the science

Frankly, these are typical tactics used by opponents of common-sense measures like what we are proposing. Their consistent argument is that wildlife should be managed by the state only and that we are merely being emotional.  What this argument fails to realize is that ALL citizens have a responsibility to our wildlife, and when the state is not appropriately managing wildlife or sanctioning cruel practices, it is imperative that we seek alternatives and actively engage communities that have an interest in protecting our wildcats.

It also doesn’t hold up when we look at the best available science, which we have made available on this issue to anyone that cares to read it. To paint supporters of this measure as simply “emotional,” attempts to ignore the science that supports ending trophy hunting but it also seeks to diminish citizen voices and values. This measure also upholds the public safety concerns of Arizonans – there are exemptions for personal safety, property and legitimate conservation purposes.

Our opponents will use fear, they will use misinformation and they will seek to delegitimize supporters by any means necessary. They recognize that public support of cruel, unsporting and unethical hunting practices is not on their side and they also know that the numbers of hunters, especially big-game hunters, are declining. They are protecting their own interests, certainly not the interests of the state’s wild cats. Surely they know that trophy hunting is increasingly coming under scrutiny and as Americans become educated on this issue, they will not support the killing for parts, bragging rights, or a selfie with a hunter and carcass from a mountain lion from a recent kill.

Do you see the ballot being part of a movement towards a more compassionate conservation model in AZ?

Yes, I think we definitely see that in Arizona, nationally and certainly internationally.  When Cecil the lion was mercilessly killed by a wealthy American in Zimbabwe in 2015, we recognized that this was a transformational moment and the horrors of trophy hunting were becoming much more known by everyday Americans.  People could not fathom this type of cruelty inflicted of our majestic creatures. It propelled people to become more educated not only of trophy hunting abroad, but also right here in their own backyards.  Collectively, the citizenry seems much more aware of these issues and no longer will stand idly by as animals suffer from cruel hunting practices so that someone can have bragging rights or take the head or hide of an animal. It is not sustainable, it is not ethical and it goes against the values of many.

Do you believe that if this ballot passes it can help set a precedent to reform hunting and trapping policies outside of Arizona?

Certainly, our focus is on Arizona, but we do know that nationally, there is a movement from scientists, advocates and American citizens who want to change current hunting practices and put an end to the needless suffering of animals, specifically they want policies that do not support hunting for trophies.

How can people help support this initiative?

Currently, we need 150,642 VALID signatures to qualify for the Nov 2018 ballot which means we have to gather more signatures to ensure we have enough. We are building an army of volunteers but need more help. People can:

  • Sign up to Volunteer
  • Visit and like our Facebook page
  • Donate – an initiative like this take significant resources to be successful
  • Share information about the campaign with friends, family, circles of influence- especially those in Arizona.
  • Endorse – we would love the support of more organizations that wish to join this movement.
  • For anyone outside of Arizona, they can donate, share, endorse us or contact the campaign at info@azforwildlife.com for more information or ways to help

Wildlife Art

On my trip to Jackson Hole in September I managed to get a few hours to explore the National Museum of Wildlife Art. I was pleasantly surprised with the extensive collection of works that centered around the cats, making this visit one of my best museum experiences to date. I fell in love with so many sculptures and paintings that it is hard to list them all, but I recall a few of my favorites here.

The museum building, which is inspired by the ruins of Slains Castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, is surrounded by an incredible sculpture trail and houses a permanent collection of over 5,000 cataloged works focusing primarily on European and American painting and sculpture. If you love and appreciate art and wildlife, then this museum is a must.

The first piece of work, that I have essentially become obsessed with, is a massive bronze sculpture that greets you as walk into the gallery. At the top of the stair case on a rock wall a puma crouches ready to pounce. The work is titled Silent Pursuit by artist Kenneth Bunn.

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Kenneth Bunn, Silent Pursuit (1994), Bronze – National Museum of Wildlife Art

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The angle and lighting do not do it justice in these pictures but you can get an idea of how powerful and animated this sculpture is, in the photo below you can make out the eyes and muzzle detail along with the strong musculature of the cat. This is a prime example of why his work is held in such high regard. Imagine being greeted with this at the top of your stair case every day!

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The next work is one of the many paintings that feature the African lion. This is by Wilhelm Kuhnert a German painter who specialized in animals, of which lions were one of his favorites. There was something about the simplistic scene and pure detailed quality of the subjects that drew my eye. It resembles a familiar image that could have been captured during a photographic safari.

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Wilhelm Kuhnert, African Lions, 1911, Oil on Canvas

This piece by James Northcote struck me for an altogether different reason. The stark portrayal and dark beauty of two tigers imprisoned in a zoo, miserable and doomed for life deprived of all things natural. It elicited a powerful feeling of sadness and could easily reflect the reality of many zoo animals around the world today. The image of the second tiger looms in the dark and you can just make out its face in the painting. A Tiger’s Den could also be considered a snapshot of what the worst zoos were like for animals in the early days. The painting is of two boys, viewing tigers for the very first time at the Royal Menagerie in the Tower of London.

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James Northcote, A Tiger’s Den, 1816, Oil on Canvas

In contrast to the above work The Enchantress by Arthur Wardle, a British artist known for his animal paintings and studies, is romantic, whimsical and bordering on mystical. I see the subjects connection to the cats and control, notice the placement of her hand and how she holds the rope. The more you look the more you question the relationship between women and animal, it is definitely an image that is open to interpretation.

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The Enchantress, Arthur Wardle, 1901, Oil on canvas

Tiger Observing Cranes by French artist Jean-Léon Gérôme is bright and cheerful with an almost surreal quality. The tiger is regal, aloof, contemplative and exudes an overall calmness against a crisp blue sky and ocean background which would not normally be habitat that you would find this species in. Is he out of place here, or exactly where he should be?

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Tiger Observing Cranes, Jean-Léon Gérôme,1890, Oil on Canvas

Instantly recognizable Andy Warhol’s bright, colorful work is appealing and pleasant to the eye even when the subject is an endangered species. This is one of ten color screen prints in the Endangered Species Portfolio, which also includes animals like an elephant, panda, rhino and zebra. The signature style is memorable and raises the individual animal to the same celebrity status of Warhol’s human subjects. The endangered Siberian Tiger has become pop art.

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Endangered Species: Siberian-Tiger, Andy Warhol, 1983, silkscreen print

There were many works depicting mountain lions at the museum and this bronze sculpture titled Panther and Cubs by American artist Edward Kemeys, was wonderful to see as it depicts a tender and loving moment. The beautiful and gentle expression of the mother and content kittens is captured in an almost painterly fashion, details seen better in the second image, which help soften the hard material allowing the subjects personality and life to come through.

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Panther and Cubs, Edward Kemeys, Bronze, cast 1878

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Moving on to more modern works, this particular painting was another piece that I would have loved to been able to take home as I would never grow tired of looking at. Mountain Lion, by Britt Chauncey Freda is the perfect combination of abstract and realism all in one – all these factors along with the colors, had me going back to this painting a few times during my visit. I wasn’t the only one who liked it, I noticed that there was a sealed bid which meant some lucky person would soon be taking this beautiful painting home.

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Mountain Lion, by Britt Chauncey Freda , Acrylic and graphite on panel, 2017

My final favorite piece is another gorgeous bronze sculpture of a tiger by American artist Gwynn Murrill who sculpts amazing abstract animals without detail. She is known for her animal forms and very distinct pieces that portray movement and character in a beautiful simplistic form.

I was first introduced to her work a number of years ago while traveling through the Toronto airport where two of the tiger sculptures were displayed, but seeing this again reminded me how much I loved her work. She has a huge portfolio of cats big and small all of which are fantastic, so be sure to check out the link to her work. Some of the sculptures are even small enough to fit inside your home, although I would have a very hard time deciding on which one I would want to have.

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Tiger 2, Gwynn Murrill, Bronze, cast 2012

Cost of Doing Business: Oil and Mountain Lions

Oil, the one thing that allows us to live very convenient and comfortable lives. It is responsible for creating wonderful things but it also has the ability to destroy. Time and again we have seen the damage that can happen when things go wrong such as the devastating consequences of oil spills, but besides that is there another impact the industry has on wildlife? To be honest it wasn’t something that I really thought about until I came across a series of articles in the Boulder Weekly that takes a fascinating and in-depth look at the relationship and potential motives for the killings of mountain lions and bears in Colorado.

Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) approved two controversial and highly contested management plans that look at the impact mountain lions and black bears have on mule deer populations. The plan, which was implemented as of this spring, essentially calls for the killing of these predators in the Piceance Basin and Upper Arkansas River areas. It received support from ranchers, hunters, farmers and the USDA, but met with opposition from scientists, conservationists and private citizens. Lawsuits filed by the conservation group WildEarth Guardians and the Center for Biological Diversity argued that land development including residential growth as well as the oil and gas industry has had a much greater impact on deer populations than predators and that a full environmental study should be completed before any killing begins.

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Are mountain lions and bears the latest victims of the oil and gas industry in Colorado? – Image credit – Boulder Weekly

Joel Berger, a wildlife conservation biologist at Colorado State University told the Boulder Weekly that Instead of looking at predation, the agency should be directing its research to other more relevant questions, “such as whether the mule deer populations in question are being limited by habitat quality and food limitation.”

Through this management plan CPW hopes to provide a clear picture of the “effects on mule deer population demographics relative to changes in mountain lion density, as well as to determine their ability to manipulate mountain lion populations through sport-hunting or harvest.” The stress, cruelty and suffering that mountain lions will be subjected to is not lost on those who oppose the plan which includes the use of “cage traps, culvert traps, foot snares and trailing hounds for capture”. As of May 1 efforts have already begun to trap and remove or relocate mountain lions and bears from the Piceance Basin predator control area. Gail Keirn, public affairs official with the United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services said that snares were being used to trap live animals and that “CPW would determine what species was snared, if it is female with young or an adult.” Family groups would be relocated, but adult target animals will be killed with a firearm.

USDA’s Wildlife Services will be contracted $50,000 annually to assist in the killing of mountain lions and bears in the Piceance Basin area, rather than hunters, but CPW is unsure if they will use them in the Upper Arkansas River area. Overall the plan aims to kill between “15 and 45 mountain lions and 30 to 75 bears over three years in 500 square miles west of Meeker and Rifle, Colorado, as well as more than half of the mountain lions in 2,370 square miles in the south-central part of the state.” WildEarth Guardians staff attorney, Stuart Wilcox, told the Boulder Weekly that he thinks the predator management plans are being used to divert attention away from the actual cause limiting mule deer populations, which, he believes, is land use regulation. There is also a lack of data on mountain lion and bear numbers in the areas which means they have no population base line making it impossible to determine if these predators are indeed responsible for declining deer numbers or if mountain lions and bears are being “over-killed”. It was also said that CPW did not use part of its mule deer funding from the oil and gas sector to carry out proper population research prior to deciding to order the killing of an unknown part of the mountain lion and bear population.

The killing has bigger consequences in terms of upsetting the balance of the eco-system as well as disrupting the target animals social structure putting males, females and kittens at risk. Kittens risk being orphaned before they are old enough to survive on their own or become victims of infanticide and, when mature mountain lions are removed (killed) it is known to cause more human wildlife conflict as younger and less experienced males move in.

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“The combined cost of the nearly three-year Piceance Basin Predator Management Plan and the nine-year long Upper Arkansas River Predator Management Plan would be $4.6 million dollars“. – Boulder Weekly

There is plenty of oil and gas development in the area where CPW’s predator management plan is taking place and, mule deer naturally range among the equipment which includes drilling rigs and pipelines. While the oil and gas companies have plans to alleviate pressures on wildlife CPW does not have a proper way to determine whether or not these plans will be successful. CPW’s own research showed that oil and gas development is limiting mule deer populations, but despite this arrangements have been made “between the agency and oil and gas companies to conduct the predator-killing efforts on oil and gas company owned land.” Not only did they find the association between a decrease in deer and oil and gas development, but CPW concluded that during an oil and gas boom there were incidents of increased poaching. This is said to be another cause of decreasing deer populations and an additional factor that needs to be fully understand before putting the blame on predators.

The Boulder Weekly points out that CPW did not consider oil and gas impacts on the deer because “sportsmen” didn’t think it was necessary to include it, which is confounding except when it is pointed out that a portion of their research funding comes from hunters or an “excise tax on the sale of firearms and ammunition products.” Hunting quota’s must be increased in order to get more funding – more deer, more money.

The plan to remove predators and methods are disturbing and unscientific especially since there is no accurate population data for mountain lions and, with another gas boom on the horizon in the area it is predicted that deer populations will once again fall as more habitat is destroyed by the industry and poaching increases. This means that mountain lions and bears will become convenient and expendable scapegoats.

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“CPW is required to balance oil and gas extraction with wildlife and its habitats; a balancing act that is proving impossible.” Boulder Weekly

While it is acknowledged that the connection to the oil and gas industry, via funding, is evident it does not necessarily mean that CPW is “exhibiting funding bias on behalf of the oil and gas industry.” However, the Boulder Weekly goes on to say that with regards to the plan to kill mountain lions and bears where previous non-oil and gas funded research concluded “oil and gas extraction and suburban development, not predators” were the main reason for declining deer numbers, does make the plan look highly questionable.

The lawsuits are still pending and in the meantime mountain lions and bears continue to be targeted for declining deer numbers. As our dependency on oil and gas seems here to stay, at least for the foreseeable future, we will need to give some serious thought on how companies, cities, countries and governments will address the impacts of the industry on both our wildlife and environment.

Excerpts have been taken from the ongoing Boulder Weekly series Off Target which can be read in full by following the links.

*Update on the lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians on November 6, 2017. The Piceance Basin Predator Management Plan and Upper Arkansas River Predator Management Plan to kill mountain lions and bears has been temporarily stopped, however Colorado Parks and Wildlife is not disclosing how many animals it and Wildlife Services have killed thus far under the plans.

Cost of Doing Business

Some would say wildlife is priceless, but do the same animals still hold ‘value’ when deemed an inconvenience or in the way of human progress? Take predators for example, who seem to become scapegoats or expendable when their interests and needs conflict with ours. Do we on a subconscious level see them as direct competition for space, food and resources? Can we co-exist with them and share or must we, by our actions or lack of, eliminate the competition?

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Whatever the reason they become one of two things – the forgotten victims, or in some cases the ‘poster animal’ for the cause helping to create awareness and positive change. We now know that everything in our environment is connected and all species including predators are vital for helping maintain a healthy balanced Eco-system. Organizations, researchers and even the average citizen are working harder than ever to ensure that these animals are given a voice and a chance to co-exist despite our continued pressure upon the natural world and their habitat. Along with the encouraging stories of progress we have made, are there cases in which the loss of wildlife is simply another cost of doing business?

A few years ago when I was writing the story about an ocelot who was photographed in the Santa Rita Mountains outside of Tuscon Arizona I started reading up on how a Canadian mining company HudBay Minerals Inc. was planning on building the Rosemont Mine, the third largest open-pit copper mine in the U.S., in the same area where the ocelot was discovered and where later the now famous jaguar El Jefe would be photographed. The discovery of the endangered ocelot would prompt the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to re-evaluate their original report (biological opinion) on the impact of the mine. Conservationists said that there would be no way species like the ocelot and jaguar could survive, or co-exist if their habitat was destroyed by the mine.

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Male ocelot, photographed on May 14, is the fifth to be documented in Arizona over the past five years.

Fish and Wildlife Services would later issue their final biological opinion coming to the conclusion that the mine would cause “significant adverse impacts on many of the species” threatening not only predators but also endangered birds and fish. They went on to say that despite this, the number of measures that would be put in place by the mining company, such as the hiring of biologist to monitor effects on wildlife and creating permanent protected areas of conservation lands, it would “not jeopardize the continued existence of any of the 13 affected listed species” or hamper recovery of species like the jaguar despite destroying part of their habitat.

There has been mixed messages among the agencies tasked with reviewing the mine. An EPA report stated that the mine would have adverse consequences on the water system as well as several endangered species including fish, frogs and birds that reside near local streams. The Army corps of Engineers concluded that any measures taken would not fully make up for the “unavoidable adverse” impact of the mine even with appropriate measures taken. The U.S. Forest Service said that due to the 1872 Mining Law, which is still applicable today, the project cannot be denied.

Government agencies weren’t the only ones in disagreement with each other on the mine and, the value of a single jaguar seemed to be something that divided wildcat conservation groups. Panthera’s CEO, and leading expert on jaguars, Alan Rabinowitz wrote back in 2010 that the occasional cat crossing the border from Mexico does not mean they have established territory or that there is even suitable jaguar habitat left in the U.S. Southwest. His feelings remained the same and he told The Star that other reasons should be found to save the landscape especially when resources are needed elsewhere where the data supports evidence of concrete jaguar recovery. Wildcat researchers Aletris Neils and Chris Bugbee who had been studying El Jefe are on the other side and disagreed saying that every single jaguar was important and that the focus should be on recovery of the species to its former range. They believe jaguars can be brought back to the area and that the public must weigh in on the decision.

In a federally financed three-year study by the University of Arizona study tracing the paths of jaguars and ocelot across Southern Arizona, researchers placed remote cameras at 250 sites across 16 mountain ranges capturing photos of a jaguar, ocelot, bobcat and mountain lion at two sites in the northern Santa Ritas. Both times, all four species were photographed within a 24-hour period, the researchers said. Melanie Culver, the study’s principal investigator and Susan Malusa, the study’s project manager told Tucson online that the habitat in the Santa Rita’s should be protected but they could not fully comment on the proposed mine as it wasn’t part of their study. Malusa said it would change things but they weren’t able to predict how.

David Chambers, an environmental consultant, told The Star that there was no definite answer as to whether the mine was “good or bad and, that it comes down to determining if the economic benefits outweigh the environmental and social costs.” Jessica Moreno of Sky Island Alliance said that not everyone cares about a jaguar named El Jefe. The critical issue of the water permits may be the best way stop the mine.

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El Jefe in 2014 – Image USFWS – As of early 2017 it has been about a year since El Jefe has been seen leading to speculations that something has happened to him or he has returned to Mexico.

Here are a few things to think about. Copper is in everyday items that we use from cars to cellphones, what are we wiling to give up or eliminate from our lives in order to protect our environment and wildlife? Do we invest more heavily in the technology to recycle and reuse existing copper or are we forever stuck having to mine for it and risk diminishing precious Eco-systems for materials like copper? As the human population grows demand for copper and other materials will increase and if it must be mined, who determines where the copper comes from? Kathy Arnold, Rosemont’s director of environment said in the article from The Star that if the demand for copper continues to grow it will have to come from somewhere and with about “30 percent of what we need being imported another country pays the environmental price for our consumption”. She goes on to say that it’s better to have someone like her watching out for the environment than in places where there are less or no proper controls.

What can be expected with a mile-wide, half-mile deep open-pit mine that is set to border the Santa Rita Mountains in the Coronado National Forest? It would bury 3,000 acres of surrounding public land generating more than a billion tons (1.25 billion tons) of toxic mine waste that will be dumped into 700-foot high “earthforms” and, it is expected to require “6,000 acre-feet of water per year”. It is clear that the mine will disturb, stress, disrupt and possibly become an additional form of mortality for wildlife in addition to the impact it would have on the environment, water supply and local people.

According to Rosemont Mine Truth, who continues to monitor this highly controversial project, there is a “possibility that HudBay could mine up to an additional 591 million tons of copper-bearing rock after mining in the pit is completed” further impacting the landscape, threatened and endangered species, water resources and ecotourism.  As it stands now a Clean Water Act permit issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and, final approval from the Coronado National Forest are required before construction could begin. A final decision is expected soon.

For updates and details on the mine’s progress, please head over to Rosemont Mine Truth on Facebook.

The Cost of Doing Business continues looking at few other projects elsewhere that are, or have the potential to impact the big cats and wildlife.

Building Walls

Building border walls is not a new concept but the impact they have tends to focus on the human element, of how the walls or fences will be used to keep people out, rather than the toll they take on the environment and wildlife. The first time I was introduced to how fences impact wildlife was many years ago while reading Cry of the Khalahari, which touches on Botswana’s veterinary fences that were erected to “stop the spread foot and mouth disease to cattle” and to meet strict EU regulations for the beef trade. The impact these fences had on wildlife was undeniable and brutal “many wild animals including giraffe, elephant, zebra and many species of antelope, became ensnared, cut off from migratory routes and from vital resources.” In short, many species perished as a direct or indirect result of the fences.

Botswana wasn’t the only country to erect fences for the purpose of protecting livestock, Australia put up a fence in the 1950’s to keep sheep safe from predators like dingos and wild dogs. The fence didn’t work out exactly as planned and it ended up also protecting kangaroos which turned out to be more of a problem for sheep due to the fact that they competed with them for pasture.

More recently the effects of the anti-refugee wall between Slovenia and Croatia was studied. The report showed how the barrier is hurting gray wolves, Eurasian lynx as well as possibly threatening brown bears. Suggestions to help alleviate the pressure at the fences includes: using new alternative forms of high-tech monitoring methods that would allow selected sections of a border to remain unfenced while still providing security; more carefully thought out fence alignment that would reduce it effects; and, design that minimizes the chance of wildlife entanglement and death similar to border fencing that has been “retrofitted between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to enable the saiga antelope to pass between the two nations.”

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Habitat fragmentation caused by the fence interrupts gene flow and threatens the already small population of Eurasian Lynx – Image Wikipedia

While the report recognizes that many fences are permanent, it says the role of conservationists is critical and that our knowledge and understanding about border fences and their effect on wildlife needs to be improved. Interestingly it was found that in some cases the fences, “may unintentionally actually help conservation by preventing animals from roaming into countries with low degrees of law enforcement, by creating well-guarded spaces where human impact is minimal and by preventing the spread of wildlife diseases.”

Germany’s Cold War barriers of fences and walls that separated East and West later became an accidental nature preserve and is now part of a green belt that runs through central and eastern Europe. In China the Great Wall was found to have no major effect on wildlife as it was not one solid piece of construction but rather consisted of a series of different builds including mounds of pounded earth which later became degraded from use. However, in specific areas where the wall is truly solid a team of Chinese scientists, who conducted a study of plant species on both sides, confirmed that in these areas it was indeed a physical barrier to gene flow.

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Arizona section of the U.S.-Mexico border wall – Via Northern Jaguar Project – Photo by Jay J. Johnson-Castro, Sr.

Connectivity and wildlife is a hot topic these days when it come to urban planning and building roads and freeways, but it is very unlikely that an extension of a wall at at the U.S.-Mexico border would take into account concerns for wildlife, habitat fragmentation, or gene flow for endangered species like the jaguar.  While humans can and will generally find ways around walls, wildlife from snakes and frogs to jaguars, pumas, bob cats and big horn sheep will not be able to move freely. They will be forced to adapt to smaller territories which will ultimately prove deadly to them especially when their access to food, mates and water, is cut off.

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Mountain lion at border wall U.S. Border Patrol – Image Northern Jaguar Project

In 2006 the Secure Fence Act, which was responsible for the 1,000 kilometers of impenetrable barrier along the Mexico–U.S. border, had environmental laws waived for its construction. The impact of these walls on wildlife has been studied along with the effects it has had on the highly endangered ocelot. The solid metal and concrete fence further fragments ocelot habitat and kept the small population in Texas separate from the larger and more genetically diverse population in northern Mexico. Even though there were about 100 openings incorporated in the fence for wildlife they were much to small to allow larger animals like bobcats or coyotes through.

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Ocelot

Wildlife biologist Mitch Sternberg told Nature that “bobcats don’t go out looking for holes in fences as they travel back and forth through brushy habitats. Overall, wildlife connectivity does not exist in these sectors anymore.” It was also noted that there were major shifts in territory due the construction for the 20 bobcats that had been collared and studied. Some simply abandoned their home range and others became trapped on one side of the wall and were eventually killed on highways while looking for new territory.

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Bobcat at US-Mexico wall. Image via Triggerpit.com – Photo: ILCP photographer

In 2014 a report was released that stated the fence had little to no impact on human travel and most native species, however it had a great impact on pumas and coatis. While pumas had greater capability to roam farther in search of territory the fence meant there were less of them. With regards to coatis who are unable to move home ranges easily, researchers concluded that this could lead to a “possible collapse in their populations”. It also pointed to the fact that any impact the wall had on the behavior and populations of pumas and coatis could have serious implications for those species with whom they interact.

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Coati – Image The Dodo – Jamie McCallum University of Bristol – U.S. Mexico Border

It is estimated that the border wall has the potential to impact 111 endangered species, 108 species of migratory bird, four wildlife refuges and fish hatcheries, and an unknown number of protected wetlands.

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Puma – Image The Dodo – Jamie McCallum University of Bristol – U.S. Mexico Border

El Jefe, the male jaguar who caused a stir of excitement when captured on trail camera in  2016 along the Arizona side of the border, would undoubtedly be cut off from any females attempting to come from Mexico. Even though a possible new jaguar has been photographed in the U.S. it is not considered enough to help re-establish the species. Kierán Suckling, executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity told EcoWatch that “walls don’t stop people from crossing the border, but Trump’s plan would end any chance of recovery for endangered jaguars, ocelots and wolves in the border region.”

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El Jefe, is believed to have crossed the U.S.-Mexico border before making his home in Arizona. (Conservation CATalyst/Center for Biological Diversity)

In December 2016 a conservation plan was released for the jaguar, a species that was systematically exterminated in its former historical habitat, by the USFWS in which they hoped to work more closely with Mexico. The plan, which is supposed to “make it easier for agencies and organizations in the U.S. and Mexico to align their efforts at restoring jaguar habitat along the border” includes keeping corridors intact so the cats can move back and forth freely. The proposed wall along the entire 2,000 mile border with Mexico would essentially be the end to the jaguars recovery in America. It would also be an ecological disaster—ripping populations and fragile ecosystems apart. Louise Misztal, biologist and executive director of conservation non-profit Sky Island Alliance in Arizona tells Motherboard that “wide-ranging mammals like mountain lions, bears, jaguars, ocelots, need to be moving between these different mountain ranges to get to food resources and water.”

Saving predators like jaguars go beyond a feel good story about bringing an endangered species back from the brink – they like other apex predators are invaluable in their ability to help regulate, naturally, other species and the ecosystem in which they reside. When apex predators disappear from the landscape trophic cascades, the top-down regulation of ecosystems by predators which is an essential aspect of ecosystem function and well-being, are disrupted.

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Camera trap data from Arizona found that the wall did not prevent illegal immigrants from crossing into the United States, but wholly stopped wildlife movement. Toad looking through the metal bars of part of the existing border wall. Credit: Anonymous. Image –  Seeker by Dan Millis

A number of groups and organizations have released statements opposing the proposed wall including the National Wildlife Federation and Panthera. Jesse Lasky, an assistant professor of biology at Pennsylvania State University told Live Science that “If Trump’s wall is built, it could push endangered animals and native animals with small habitats over the edge…and If the populations on the border start disappearing, the functioning of these ecosystems could be reduced.” Bryan Bird, director of the Southwest Program for Defenders of Wildlife tells Seeker that “fences are only appropriate directly adjacent to urban areas and should not be used in wildlife corridors or other ecologically sensitive areas” and, alternative monitoring devices, which minimize the impact on wildlife, such as “virtual high-tech fencing options like unmanned aerial vehicles, motion-sensors, laser barriers and infrared cameras ” should be employed to provide security.

In addition to what the wall means for wildlife, the construction of it will have a further impact on human health and the planet as it has the potential to release about “2 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.”

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The U.S.-Mexico border is the largest human construction that has been made to divide two countries since the great wall of china.” US-Mexico wall arial – Image via Triggerpit.com – Photo: ILCP photographer

It is widely accepted that it is a negative prognosis for wildlife and ecosystems when man-made barriers are introduced, unfortunately even with this knowledge border walls and fences are on the rise. Wildlife at the current U.S.-Mexico border wall has been documented acting confused and stressed due to their daily routines being disrupted and, without further environmental impact studies, or incorporating designs in fences that allow animals to move through, researchers will not know the extent of damage or long-term implications. Along with undoing decades of conservation efforts and work any new fences will increase the number of species at risk by further isolating them on either side, pushing wildlife like the jaguar and ocelot even more precariously close to extinction while degrading our ecosystems in the process.

Discerning Foxes wear Puma N°5

Animals exist in a completely different sensory world than humans and scents that humans would find offensive or unattractive are often found to be a draw for our four-legged friends. An article in New Scientist recently revealed research by Carnivore Ecologist Max Allen showing gray foxes in California rubbing themselves in “community scrapes” left by male mountain lions.

Discerning foxes wear Puma N°5. While rubbing oneself in puma scent may not sound appealing to us for the fox it could possibly be the equivalent of Chanel N°5 with the added bonus of providing life saving camouflage. Allen tells New Scientist that he was surprised to find foxes frequenting the sites where camera traps had been set up to monitor and film mountain lions. Footage, taken over four years at 26 different sites “revealed the foxes were rubbing their cheeks on bits of ground that had been freshly marked by the mountain lions, often within hours of a big cat’s visit.”

Why are foxes resorting to rubbing Eau de Mountain Lion on them? Coyotes. Foxes are in direct competition with the much larger coyote and are often killed by them, Allen says this is a way for the foxes to evade detection. “Coyotes are very reliant upon smell when hunting and are much bigger than the foxes. The foxes have a hard time fighting back, so they use this to give themselves a chance to escape.” To a coyote if it smells like a puma it must be a puma.

It was found that no other animals, coyotes or bobcats, exhibited this behavior even though they were documented to have visited the community scrapes, but 85% of the foxes did. Predator avoidance seems the most likely explanation and in order to confirm, Allen and his team are planning to tag some gray foxes to determine if puma scents are in fact helping them survive predation.