The Nose Knows

Most people are familiar with drug or bomb sniffing dogs as well as dogs that can detect cancers in people. Generally when it comes to scent detection it seems that dogs have the market cornered. New research recently published by the Journal of Applied Animal Behavior Science explains that our feline companions abilities are nothing to sniff at and, they may be just as helpful as dogs or better at disease detection in humans and search and rescue.

The average cat has about 200 million scent receptors while most dog breeds have much less. The exception is the Bloodhound which has been bred specifically to have a powerful senses of smell and comes in at about 300 million scent receptors or, the Beagle and the German Shepard which have about 225 million. Our four-legged friends sense of smell is very impressive when you compare it to humans who only have about 5 million olfactory cells.

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Cats are discriminating super sniffers using their sense of smell to communicate and also mark territory – Image –

So who has a better sense of smell? The ‘dogs’ vs ‘cats’ debate will likely continue, but it is generally acknowledged by researchers that cats will win out in the best sense of smell category. What makes cats good candidates and better than dogs for helping to sniff out disease or find missing people? Simply, the nose knows how to better discriminate between smells.

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When a cat grimaces or shows the ‘Flehmen’ response they  are taking in and analyzing scents via the vomeronasal organ. Image –

Out of the three families of receptor proteins in a cats vomeronasal or Jacobson organ only one has been studied. They are known as V1Rs, and it is believed that the “number of V1R receptor gene variants is correlated with the ability to discriminate between chemical stimuli. Research shows that tigers have 21 gene variants and domestic cats have 30, compared to the 9 functioning V1Rs that dogs have, which would indicate that some felids are able to discriminate between a great variety of chemical stimuli.” Additional research will be required on the V1Rs, and eventually the other receptor proteins V2Rs and FPRs, to find out the extent to which cats can discriminate between scents.

The basis of these finding could mean there is great potential for cats to be used in scent based working roles where dogs may not be ideal either due to size or environment. It would also benefit cats directly by providing humans with a better understanding of how to improve their welfare or implement better enrichment for them at home or in animal shelters.

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 Feliway™ the first synthetically produced pheromone used to help calm and reduce anxiety in cats comes in a spray or diffuser form. It is one way scent is already helping cats. Image – Daily Mail

There have already been a number of documented cases of cats detecting cancer in their owners and also sniffing it out in other animals. I had this experience with one of my own cats when one suddenly started sniffing around the bottom of our other cat who was diagnosed with a tumor in his colon a week later.

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Researchers say that these abilities are underused in cats but they may be better alternatives for medical scent detection or olfactory assistance animals for patients who are uncomfortable with dogs or rats. However, anyone who is owned by a cat knows, that just like dogs, they each have individual personalities which means that not all of them will be gifted with the abilities or desire to do search and sniff work. This leaves us with a final question that is probably on the minds of many as they read this. Can cats be trained? The answer is yes, but it will take patience, positive reinforcement and some really enticing food rewards.

15 thoughts on “The Nose Knows

    • Yes it would, like they do with barn cats. Although I am not sure how long away the application is for this type of thing, also how many cats would be able or want to work lol. I am sure there would at least be a few!

  1. Yes, your final question was what was going through my mind all the way through your fascinating post – will we be able to get Felix to oblige in detection work? Cats are so much more their own people than dogs, aren’t they? Where did you get your amazing pics? Nice post. x

    • I know, some cats take to training so I am sure it will be possible with some. Will be interesting to see when it does finally happen. Pictures sources are noted under each, they came from google search. Glad you enjoyed it!

      • Hi Renata, I think the first thing to keep in mind is patience & always positive reinforcement also that your cat is having fun & enjoying themselves. Start with something small & easy first.

        I have not trained any of my cats but I would recommend checking out this really cool Instagram account that I follow which uses clicker training :

        she also has youtube videos:

        Her Instagram account is really fun with lots of videos. You could even contact her directly.

        Please remember all cats are different so always go by their cues & never force your cat into doing something.

        Good luck & have fun!

  2. This is great! Anyone who’s ever lived with a cat knows they have a very well-developed sense of smell…they made it very clear when they like and don’t like the smell of things! 🙂

  3. Hello! I really enjoyed reading your text. I’ve always wanted to know why cats grimaced at certain smells. It’s incredible what they can do! They are totally entitled to us just for being smarter at using their noses. Thanks again for writing such an informative piece. I’ll go on and check some cat training tips I can apply whenever they feel like it. Haha

  4. Pingback: FUTURE: 30-day Blogging Challenge #Day 10 - Mulheres e Mentes

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